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Gastronomy - lifestyle - culture - natural medicine .

 About Culinary Art / World cuisine / Commercial kitchen brigade / Food as preventive natural medicine


Commercial kitchen brigade

A system is created by Georges Augusto Escoffier, and originally used in restaurants and hotels in France, the Brigade de Cuisine (kitchen brigade) is a hierarchical system that defines the roles of each staff member in a kitchen. This will help explain the organization and distribution of responsibility in a kitchen and how every little detail of a dish goes unlocked.  

Members of the Brigade:   1. Certified Master Chef. 2.Executive Chef .3. Chef de Cuisine – The top chef (head cook commercial kitchen manager and sometimes in restaurant all operation manager or on cooperative level executive) . This person is responsible for running the show, supervising staff, training staff, creating new menus, testing new recipes, and maintaining communication with all other departments within the restaurant.   Executive Sous Chef (or Chef de Cuisine) – This is the right-hand man of the Chef de Cuisine. This person is also responsible for the management of the kitchen following the direction of the Chef de Cuisine, and is the eyes and ears of the Chef de Cuisine when he or she is not on site.   Sous Chef (or Chef de Partie) – This person is something of a "senior" chef. They are responsible for assisting the Chef de Cuisine and Executive Sous Chef in managing the kitchen, and are generally responsible for overseeing a particular station in the kitchen.   Cuisinier (or Cook/Line Cook) – This person is responsible for preparing specific components of a dish for a particular station, under the strict guidelines of the Sous Chefs and Chef de Cuisine.   Commis – line cook .This person, like the Cuisinier , also assists in the operation of a specific station, but works directly under the Cuisinier and Sous Chef.   Apprenti (or Apprentice) – This person is often a student completing an Externship through a culinary school program, and is responsible for basic prep work and cleaning.   Plonguer (Dishwasher) – This person is responsible for cleaning dishes and can sometimes be given basic food prep tasks.   Marmiton (Pot and Pan Washer) – This person is responsible for washing all the pots, pans and larger pieces of cooking equipment.   Listed below are the titles of more specific Cuisiniers (which are not listed in order of hierarchy). In smaller kitchens or restaurants, it is not uncommon to have several of these tasks completed by one person.   Saucier – Sauce maker   Rotisseur – Roast Cook   Grillardin – Grill Cook   Friturier – Fry Cook   Poissonnier – Fish Cook   Potager – Soup Cook   Legumier – Vegetable Cook   Garde Manger – Pantry Cook  

 How about to eat healthy!

  How you cook is as important as what you cook, and many recipes have some leeway when it comes to cooking methods. For instance:  

- Need to fry or sauté? You can use a good quality non-stick cookware (I prefer stainless steel

–health and safety reason) to reduce or eliminate the need for fats and oils

. - Put away the frying pan and try other techniques like poaching, baking, broiling, roasting or grilling.  

 - Baste with broth, fruit or vegetable juices or wine instead of butter or fats.

  - Cook rice and pasta until it's firm (al dente) to slow the release of sugars into your blood stream as it digests.  

- Make vegetables more interesting by steaming with herbs, braising or roasting. They'll be more flavorful, and you won't need to add salt or butter.  

 - Prepare the ingredients yourself. Instead of using roasted nuts (which are high in salt and fat), buy raw and toast your own. Start with dried beans and lentils and cook them yourself rather than using canned -- they'll contain less salt and digest easier with a proper soaking.  

Swap an ingredient . Some ingredient substitutions are easy -- like using frozen yoghurt instead of ice cream or whole wheat pasta instead of white -- but some require a little know-how to maintain the texture and flavor of the food. Here are some common swaps to try:  

- All-purpose (white) flour: You may not be able to replace it all, but you can substitute up to half with whole wheat flour. If you're experimenting with other flours -- like oat, rice, barley, spelt or kamut -- talk to the staff at your local health food store to find out which ones work best.  

- Bread crumbs: Rolled oats or crushed bran cereal can make a crunchy coating, plus they add fiber and other nutrients.  

 - Butter, oil or shortening: In baked goods, substitute the equivalent amount of applesauce or prune puree  

 - Eggs: Use two egg whites or 1/4 cup of an egg substitute in place of one whole egg.  

- Sour cream: Try low-fat or fat-free versions, or substitute in plain yoghurt for a probiotic punch.  

- Ground beef: Choose leaner choices like ground chicken or turkey instead. If it has to be beef, try a leaner ground.

  - One ounce of chocolate: Replace with three tablespoons of cocoa. You get the antioxidants, but not the fat and sugar.  

- Iceberg lettuce: Whether its sandwiches or salads, use dark, leafy alternatives like spinach, romaine, bok Choy and swiss chard to add more flavor, fiber and vitamins.   Omit one   Got a recipe with a lot of extras -- like nuts, dried fruits and candies? You can often leave out one of these ingredients without significantly sacrificing taste. Try leaving the pine nuts out of the pesto, or skip the marshmallows on the yams.  

 You can also drop the garnishes or condiments. For instance, dust the top of a cake with icing sugar in place of frosting, or skip the extras like coconut, chocolate shavings or candies. Skip the pickles and some of the creamy toppings too.  

Reduce the amount   Sometimes there's a reason for all the salt and sugar: Cooking is chemistry, and the right ingredients create the right chemical reactions. However, you many not need the amounts called for in the recipe:

  - Salt: When you're baking, you can leave out up to half of the salt. The one exception: if the recipe uses yeast, use the full amount of salt to avoid dense or flat results. Baked goods with yeast require salt to help them rise. For appetizers, entrees, salads and soups you can often leave out the salt entirely -- especially if you're using other ingredients like soy sauce or soup stock that contain sodium.

 Try using herbs and spices instead to flavor food.  

 - Sugar: How low can you go? You can reduce the amount of sugar in a recipe by one third to one half, depending on your sweet tooth. Other ingredients like vanilla, almond extract, cinnamon, cloves and allspice already bring out the natural sweetness in foods.  

 As with salt, yeast also relies on sugar for the leavening process, so avoid altering the amount of sugar, honey or other sweeteners in baked goods that use this rising agent.   In addition, you can reduce the amount of fat in recipes by using the ingredient substitutions mentioned above.   Increase the fruit and veggie content   If you've cooked for fussy kids (or spouses!), you know that sneaking in more fruits and vegetables is an art form. Here are some ideas:

  - Add extra vegetables to sauces and soups. (You can sneak some vegetables in by pureeing them, if needed.) Same goes for pizza toppings, salads and grilled sandwiches.   - Add extra fruit -- dried or fresh -- when baking or making a salad. (Like raisins or cranberries in oatmeal cookies, or apple slices in your salad.)  

 - Use tortilla wraps or pitas or even better solution is freshly made crepe-blini instead of making sandwiches (there's more room for vegetables).   - Offer salsa, chutneys, hummus, or bean-based dips as toppings, spreads and sandwich fillings instead of sour cream or cream cheese.  

 - Skip the syrup and use fruit puree to top yoghurt, pancakes or ice cream.   Downsize the portions   Some recipes don't lend themselves to much alteration -- but scaling back the serving sizes of rich dishes is an easy way to cut calories, sodium and fat. Round out the plate with healthier choices -- like fruits, vegetables and salad -- that complement the dish. For instance, serve up a slimmer slice of chocolate cake and top it with strawberries, or pair a creamy casserole with a vegetable-laden salad on the side.   And beware of this dieting mistake: don't load up on bigger portions because the recipe is healthier. If you want to make cutbacks in your diet, keep your eyes on portion size !  


French cuisine:   French cuisine is a style of cooking originating from France, having developed from centuries of social and political change. The Middle Agesbrought Guillaume Tirel, better known as Taillevent. The modern age, starting in the 17th century, however, saw a move toward fewer spices and more liberal usage of herbs and creamy ingredients, beginning with La Varenne and further developing with the notable chef of Napoleon and other dignitaries, Marie-Antoine Carême.   French cuisine was moderated in the 20th century by Georges Auguste Escoffier to become the modern version of haute cuisine. Escoffier's major work, however, left out much of the regional character to be found in the regions (provinces) of France. Gastro-tourism and the Guide Michelin helped to bring people to the countryside during the 20th century and beyond, to sample this rich bourgeois and peasant cuisine of France. Gascon cuisine has also been a great influence over the cuisine in the southwest of France.   French cuisine is considered the most elegant styles of cooking in the world. It is characterized by abundant use of local, often medicinal herbs, vegetables and herbs , such as artichokes, asparagus and celery.   Vegetables are not only used for sauces and side dishes, but as a main dish to. As a result, the French diet is rich in vitamins and fiber that is very useful for digestion.   Other important features of French cuisine its rich variety of sauces. There are more than 3,000 patented sauces (most sauces are made with wine reduction) in France. They are rich and tasty food, and also improve digestion.   Dairy products are difficult to observe in a typical French table. The only exception to this rule is the famous French cheese and butter. On the other hand, French wine is excellent and is an ingredient in the preparation of various dishes, and is the perfect accompaniment to any dish. It is believed that red wine has a beneficial effect on digestion. It also, when consumed in moderate quantities and steady, lower blood lipids, preventing arteriosclerosis.   French cuisine is, therefore, a blessing to the body. But it also hides some flaws. For example, there is a wide range of foods with a high range of animal proteins, such as pie and the infamous but delicate foie grass.   The possibility of food poisoning lies in insufficient fresh molluscs such as snails (escargots), or mussels, especially when served raw. That way professional Cook /Chef is trained to manage HACCP and food safety appropriately.   French cuisine as it is very difficult to prepare at home. The delicate job swallows time and money for ingredients, and really requires a high level of culinary expertise. That's why you leave that job to the professional Chef in the restaurant and you may enjoy the full gastronomic pleasure.  

Canadian cuisine   Approximately two thirds of the state surrounded by the sea, and 35 % of the area covered by forest. The climate is mainly continental, and on the northern Subarctic and Arctic.   The inhabitants are mostly of British and French origin.   Historical influence   The natives, Indians and Eskimos, creating the foundations of the first Canadian cuisine: pemmican (a mixture of dried meat), buffalo meat , wild turnip and wild rice have not yet forgotten.   Today's kitchen is, of course, developed under the influence of the people who live there ,and today they are an ethnic group from almost all over the world.   Quebec;   Strong European classic French cuisine influence . The region is rich in growing apples, pears and plums , breeding ducks ( chef specialty foie grass that some Hollywood star like Pamela Anderson criticizes use of those foods) by the Lake Brome , lamb , production of various types of cheese , apple juice , maple syrup , forests rich in mushrooms ... In other words, in Quebec are really good place to eat. Residents are also the masters of preparing seafood , fish and shellfish. Some of the classic recipes are also included in this kitchen, a trademark of the pot -en -pot (pie with seafood).   Ontario;   The specificity of the micro climate , especially in areas along the Lake Ontario is reflected in a rich and diverse fruits of the land and lakes. Give the highest yield of apples, peaches, plums and grapes in the mild climate of southern Ontario.   T

he Niagara Falls area produces the famous sweet "ice wine " . The grapes are, in fact, picked frozen at temperatures of about -10 ° C, usually in the cold night in January, when the sound of sirens is wine, which starts with harvesting .   Kitchener-Waterloo, London and (Lamington tomato) Windsor region has a rich farming tradition. Farmers markets are places to get best quality local, organically grown products. That is available in grocery stores in large cities like Toronto...  

 British Columbia;   Canada's westernmost region bordering the Pacific, very rich in high quality salmon fish.   City of Vancouver has new diversified culinary culture, and is open to many influences: slight flavours' west coast (San Francisco) mix with Asian culinary culture and many communities of world wide immigrants . The beautiful scenery and mild climate have created ideal conditions for natural growth of vegetables and fruits, to the extent that the natives did not need to deal with agriculture.   Salmon, halibut and seafood usually end up as food on the grill (on a wet cedar, which gives a special flavor).   New Brunswick;   The plates of this region are dominated by majestic lobster then venison and  buy majestic lobster then venison and lots of berries that can be found in the area.   Newfoundland and Labrador, Eastern

Canada region was first discovered by the Vikings 1000 years ago , and later French and Portuguese fishermen in search for cod . Meals are based on fish and shellfish: boiled, baked or grilled , and desserts are made from delicious wild berries.   Summer is festival time in which to celebrate all the local products: octopus , lobster , strawberries , blueberries , and not a single event does not pass without a drop strong rum, for which the region is known.  

 Nova Scotia;   Hot lobster with melted butter , hot pie with blueberries , creamy chowder with seafood , Solomon Gundy ( pickled herring with onions and spices ) ... Nova Scotia is full of culinary surprises inspired by French , English , German and Scottish cuisine.   Shellfish , fish, swordfish , mackerel , Atlantic salmon , crab and cod from Nova Scottie are known the world over.   The traditional dishes include pie with chicken and grated cheese , Lunenburg pudding sausage . Desserts are made from the berry, berry and apple.   Prince Edward Island   Potatoes in a hundred ways, baked lobster , mussels cooked by steaming , mushrooms stuffed with minced meat of crabs - these are the specialties of this area .  

Alberta;   Alberta is a synonym for the breeding of livestock , especially cattle and buffalo. Baked Beans , grilled beef steak, wild rice and barley are part of the culinary tradition of this region.   Prairie Oyster (cocktail of raw eggs, Worcestershire sauce) is also one of the symbols of this region , and is used as a remedy for a hangover .   Manitoba;   Contrasting landscapes - from the south vast fields of grain, to a rocky north, scattered lakes - Manitoba, are extremely attractive. Traditional food, including bison , venison , fish , wild fruits and cereals , is still present on the menus. Fur traders brought bannock ( fried flat bread over the fire, which is sometimes added to dried fruit or berries ), and held on an old tradition of smoked fish and meat.   For many centuries in Manitoba have moved people from all over the world and each one is , of course , brought about a part of their culinary customs. Winnipeg is now a multicultural city which is just as easy to find a Japanese sushi and Italian gelato. Its Chinatown is a vibrant combination of oriental restaurants and markets, and spread the Jewish community, which the city serves delicacies such as rye bread, challaha, bagels ( with donuts " hole ") , rich sandwiches, smoked salmon and creamy cake of cheese.   French part of Saint - Boniface , the second largest francophone community in Canada. Here you can try nutrients French- Canadian dishes like pea soup and sweet pies, while in a romantic restaurant can taste the lighter dishes such as young pike, wild rice or dessert with blueberries .   Not only the city but also rural regions , offering an interesting Ukrainian ethnic specialties: perogies ( dumplings stuffed with potatoes and cheese, served with onions and sour cream ), borscht , thick soups, noodle dishes and sausages , the Icelandic desert ( composed of seven thin layers of cream biscuits attached plum and cardamom ), etc. ..   Saskatchewan;  

Saskatchewan is known for Saskatoon berries , rich in vitamin C, which grow in such abundance that it is the largest city in the region for them and got the name.   The most common contribution to the main dish is cooked wild rice that grows along the lake . The market offers a wide selection of fresh tomatoes, corn ,young potatoes ,fresh herbs and the finished product like Mennonite sausage, Ukrainian cabbage rolls or fresh bread with poppy seeds ...  

Mexican cuisine   The discovery of America in 1492 , Mexico and other countries newly opened world's new culinary horizons representing them, vanilla , avocado , corn , tomatoes , chocolate ... Most of today's Mexican cuisine is based on the combination of indigenous traditions ( Aztecs , Mayans ...) with culinary trends brought on by Spanish colonialists .   Kitchen Features   Before the conquistadors arrived in Mexico , the Aztecs and Mayans enjoyed the fresh fish , tropical fruits , corn, chocolate, chili sauces and green and red tomatoes . Food is prepared on the grill and under the lid . On the markets of ancient Mexico were sold papaya, pineapple, olives, avocados, peanuts, beans, peppers, Tabasco, vanilla, honey, fish and game. After arrival of the Spanish in Mexico a new food culture is arrived with them and it was more Mediterranean -oriental style.  

Mexican cuisine is now differentiated by region due to different climates , geographical location and ethnic differences. Mexicans day begins abundant breakfast, continue late lunch (comida), and conclude with dinner (over hay).   Groceries;   Quality ingredients are the main part of any successful kitchen , including Mexican. Key ingredients of Mexican cuisine are:   - corn   -chili, originating in the territory of today's Mexico. Only in Mexico there are about 100 kinds of chili peppers. Most Popular fiery and aromatic peppers are: jalapeno , habanero , guajillo , POBLANO , serrano , ancho , cascabel , Chipotle ...   - Beans,tomato,fruits....   -flor de calabaza , a secret ingredient that is used in everything from soups to sauces.   - heutlacoche , small, dark , very creamy and delicious mushrooms.   Mexico is one of the most interesting parts of the world for the food lovers .  

Mexican cuisine is known for its intense and varied flavors, colorful decoration and rich spices. Relying on the offer modern restaurant we thought that it consists solely of tacos, Quesadilla , enchilada and carnitasa , but there are still many stellar meals.   For example , centuries -old mole poblano dark and thick sauce made of dried chilli , nuts , seeds , spices, cocoa and other foods , chimichanga ( buritto prfemale in the deep-fried ), salsa (a mixture of tomatoes, onions and chili ), tostadas (corn tortilla chips) , guacamole ( avocado sauce) , tortillas (corn / wheat pancake ); burrito (white tortilla with meat , beans and cheese) ; Atoll ( thick hot porridge made from maize ), chorizo ( spicy pork sausage with garlic and red chilli ), fajita ( steak or chicken grilled in a tortilla ), empanada ( pastry filled with fruit ).   Glorious are Mexican drinks, such as mescal and tequila popular , which is produced from agave . Enough of the kinds of beer, a thirst will remain even wine lovers . In Mexico, try the margaritas , especially those with Tamarindo mango, Flor de Jamaica or Grand Marnier with lemon . They point out the liquor and coffee, maize and palms, fruit punch and fermented beverages. agave juice , fresh fruit juices , cocoa and coffee are good non-alcoholic choice.  

 Chinese Cuisine

China is situated in eastern Asia , on the west coast of the Pacific Ocean. It borders with Korea , Mongolia, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan , Tajikistan , Afghanistan, Pakistan, India , Nepal , Bhutan , Laos and Vietnam.   According to Chinese belief, taking cold drinks during meals is not recommended for health reasons.   As a country of great contrasts, China in his geographical description has mountains , deserts and fertile river banks. Much of western China cover the Himalayas, Tian and Pamir and large deserts and central China is mainly a mountainous area . Rivers also play an important role in transport and irrigation. Great Wall of China was built over a 2500 years to the population defended against invasion from the north.   Historical influence   China has a long history, which counts several thousand years. More than three thousand years it was ruled by kings and dynasties. In the early 13th century China took the Mongols led by Genghis Khan . His grandson Kublai Khan founded the Yuan Dynasty , which was replaced after a hundred years of the Ming Dynasty , a mid-17th century established the Qing Dynasty .   The exceptional diversity of Chinese cuisine created through a long and exciting history. With each new dynasty are developed new recipes, and introduced new foods and spices. Culmination of skill of preparing food has reached the reign of the Qing Dynasty ( 1644th-1911th ). During this period ( 1714th birthday of the then Emperor ) designed and Man Han Quan Xi - incredibly sumptuous banquet , which consisted of 108 types of food ( fusion Manchurian and Han - Chinese cuisine ), at which people eat 3 full days all food offered. Man Han has developed into a tradition, and was cancelled only after the founding of the People 's Republic of China , 1911 y.   Kitchen Features   Chinese cuisine shares much with the culinary heritage of other parts of East Asia , especially Japanese, Singaporean and Vietnamese cuisine.   Geographic and cultural differences have divided the Chinese cuisine in the main "8 kitchen " ( the place of origin ) " 4 flavours ( salty, sweet, sour and spicy) , but there are divisions by region ( Northwest cuisine, Mandarin, Jiang - Huai , northeast , Cantonese , chiuchow , Hakka , Hunan, Shanghai , sechuan , Fiji , Yunnan and Hainan , Hong Kong , macao , Nanyang and Taiwan ).   The best known are Sichuan ( strong , intensely flavored foods , lots of rice, bamboo, fermented soybean , citrus and mushroom, chilli , garlic and ginger. Cantonese is sophisticated , light and refreshing a kitchen with an abundance of fresh fish, fruits and vegetables prepared by baking , roasting , boiling , steaming or stir- fry . Cold northern parts of Mongolia , which affect the fish is accessible lamb and mutton , and rice - wheat , oats and pasta . Hunan regions with extremely cold winters, is known for very spicy but tasty food.   Attractive serving   Classical Chinese food goes into two main parts in which the main role of the carbohydrates (rice , noodles , or mantou ) and supporting fish , vegetables or meat , which occur only as attachments .   Rice is , of course , almost inevitable , but it may happen that during , for example , formal dinners might see at the end , and perhaps not at all .   Solid foods are eaten with chopsticks: the food before processing, chopping to pieces and it takes only a few exercises for mastering these accessories. Fish is usually boiled or roasted whole and is also eaten with chopsticks. Soups are eaten wide and shallow, mostly with ceramic spoons . Traditionally, the use of knives and forks at the table was considered barbaric because they perceived as a weapon !!!   Originally , the food that brings the plates , which agree with the middle of the table , and gathered around the table freely sticks taken from the common pot . Such quite unhygienic access to modern Chinese families still change in the Western way of serving the common pot and attach the accessories to be placed in the plate. Only the dish with rice arrived on the table separately for each guest at a time. The role of host , the Chinese will be a sign of hospitality to serve some of the dishes with their chopsticks.   Sweet dessert at the end of the meal is also not included in the usual Chinese menu. More likely it would be a sweet dish ( such as, for example , roasted fruit with syrup ) to find the middle of a meal , along with other contributions, but this practice is changing in a western restaurant, where fruit or fried ice cream coming on the end.  

According to Chinese belief, taking cold drinks during meals is not recommended for health reasons , so you will prefer to offer hot tea or hot water .  

 Frame cooking methods are used more than the standard recipe system.   The rule cooking methods is crucial for the success of the final dishes. Skill mastery of temperature is crucial for achieving top results .Typical Chinese method is to stir- fry , that is , fast sautéed fine food in the heated oil in a wok .   The harmony of Yin and Yang   Of perfectly prepared meals is expected to meet much more than just the sense of taste : the colors should be pleasing to the eye , bits chopped into equal parts , and the whole composition flavorful smell. The flavors and textures should be during the meal to be dynamically changed to: crunchy and tender, dry and juicy , and mildly spicy ...   Symbolism   It is said that "the sky like people who eat well . " The kitchen is sometimes compared with France, particularly for philosophy: a little, but good. In Chinese culture, food does not just mean solving hunger, but also as a means to achieve health and art full of symbolism , which is especially obvious during the festival , or, for example, celebrate the New Year . Then they will serve the whole fish and black algae symbolic of rich, condensed bean that brings joy good marriage and chicken eggs for fertility , and so on.  

 Indian Cuisine  

Each Indian region contributes to its specificity and developed culinary tradition , a secret, they say, lies in the herbs and spices.   Geographical location   Republic of India is located in South Asia and its area covers the greater part of the Indian subcontinent. India shares borders with Pakistan , China , Nepal , Bhutan , Bangladesh , Myanmar , and south along the Indian Ocean, her neighbors Maldives and Sri Lanka. The largest metropolitan areas in the southwest of the Mumbai and Kolkata on the river Ganges.   Each region developed its specific contributions of culinary tradition , but experts say that the secret to abundance of spices and herbs.   India is a country of great diversity and variation , ranging from the majestic Himalayas in the north , through the miracle of the "holy river " Gang, harsh desert Rajasthan , Punjab ( the country's five rivers ) to the luxurious greenery of Kerala. Like its landscape , India is abundant in diverse climatic regions , and religions , races and languages.   Historical influence   The diversity of Indian cuisine is the result of the diversity of its population and historical influences. For centuries with each new wave of settlers , traders and conquerors imposed new culinary practices , which eventually assimilated into Indian cuisine we know it today .  

 The dominant influence on Indian food left by Arab and Chinese traders and Persian , Mongolian , Turkish , British and Portuguese conquerors.   Kitchen Features.   Spices in India, refreshing , warming , but also a beneficial effect on the welfare of the organism. More than 3 000th years before Christ were used turmeric, cardamom, pepper and mustard. Somewhere at the same time, the common and rice along the estuary of the river Ganges , and today India is a country that rice feeds the two great world religions , Hinduism and Buddhism.   Despite the diversity, it is possible to derive a common element of all Indian cuisine. The basis of Indian cuisine as grains - rice , wheat , maize or millet, depending on the region , which are eaten with a lens or beans (dal ), vegetables, fragrant marinades and chutney . This can be added to meat , poultry , fish, yogurt and coconut. Generally , rice is the main course, north , and Rajasthan while Gudzarat depend on millet and maize.   Culinary specifics   At the extreme north lies the magical land of Kashmir . Valley of Kashmir and Himalayas , the forest near the lake, trees and gardens and home to the mountain antelope , from whose wool shawls made famous by breed. There almond trees bloom in March, Chinar in April , strawberries and cherries abundant in May, June apricots , and pomegranates and pears venerated August.   Nested in the Himalayas , Kashmir is in agriculture relies on the valley Srinigara . Kashmiri food is characterized by a subtle mixture of spices , especially saffron, and the use of asafoetida , resins which gives flavor and helps digestion.   The most famous specialties include lamb marinated in yogurt , mutton cooked in milk and spiced with nutmeg , rich and famous meat curry Goshtabu or boiled meat roll . Kashmiri weddings are incomplete without Mishani or series of 7 dishes of lamb . Large selection of bread with and without yeast is an inevitable part Kashmir's meal.   Ganga plains in the central and eastern part of India where the band is based diet of rice and cereals, although in some cases consume millet and corn. Normal meal in this region consist of the abundance of rice , vegetables baking with spices, made unleavened bread in tandory, whole yogurt and desserts based on milk. Chutney and marinades are the usual accompaniment of dishes, while the fruit is consumed seasonally. Chutney is an aromatic , sweet -sour sauce of Indian cuisine. It has a mushy appearance, and consists of pieces of fruit and vegetables. Sweet -sour flavor is obtained by adding sugar and lemon juice or vinegar.   The chutney can add salt, pepper, coriander, cumin and turmeric Oriental , and is to be rejected or chili and fresh ginger. Chutney is prepared by cooking as well as jams, a contribution to the curry dishes to strongly flavored dishes ..   East , on the Bay of Bengal , its lakes and rivers, an area with the highest consumption of fish , and the eastern belt of India with its fertile alluvial soil is the region with the largest crop of rice.   There are 2 different types of cooking in Bengal. East Bengal prefers to fish from large rivers , while in the west of Calcutta gets food from inland lakes and fjords. Hills , fish from the herring family , in spite of numerous small bones of the most popular fish in this region. Bengal is famous for its use of mustard and poppy seeds . Brownish mustard or mustard is not used only as a spice , but it gets from the oil that gives the flavor.   The country south of India is made up of solid, lava that is full of iron and dating back 50 million years or more. It is known that rice is grown in this region of the 500th years before Christ, as an efficient means of irrigation. Food is part of the traditional habits of the south , while Indians are still here, sitting crossed legged on a floor mat and eat from the stainless steel plate (Thali ) or part of a banana leaf . Rice, prepared cooking or encapsulated in a thin as paper plates , known as Dossay or Idli , is eaten in abundance. I Dossay and Idli prepared by dipping the rice, and these two dishes are eaten with various spices, vegetables and dal light broth known as Sambar . In Karntaki , central southern state, is cultivated Mandigo , which is cooked on heated ceramic cup and full ingredients such as sugar, ground cardamom and coconut pieces . The main meal consists of vegetables accompanied by a universally popular Dosay , Idli or boiled rice.   Eggplant is a popular southern vegetables. The equally popular bitter gourd is full of salt and various spices before frying in oil or cooking in unrefined sugar (jaggery) syrup to lose every trace of bitterness.

  Greek Cuisine  

Fresh ingredients , unsparing use of aromatic herbs and spices , olive oil ( present in most foods ) and ease of preparation , are characteristic features of this cuisine. Thanks to its mild climate , vegetables and fruits are grown in a natural way , which is reflected in the quality and full flavor . Herbs that are harvested in the villages and mountains ( oregano , thyme , mint , rosemary ... ) is known for its strong fragrance and medicinal properties. Feta cheese is one excellent sheep's milk cheese that we know from the Greek salad. As sheep and goats graze freely in fields and feed on aromatic herbs , meat is also a specific taste, and so is the seafood .   Appetizers - Meze * Dolmadakia - an appetizer of rice and grape leaves with raisins , mint , onions and parsley , served hot or cold;   * Tiropita - salted pie with cheese ;   * Spanakopita - pita with spinach and cheese ;   * Gigantes ( Fasolia ) - white beans baked in tomato sauce ;   * Saghanaki - mozzarella prwomen in the deep-fried , very tasty, but calorie food , eating out hot sprayed with lemon juice ;   * Taramosalata - smoked codfish with boiled potatoes, onions and lemon. Want to try a bit of everything , order pokily !   Main dishes * Moussaka - the most famous Greek dishes , casseroles of lamb , eggplant and potatoes , seasoned with olive oil, onions, tomatoes, white wine and grated cheese kefalotiri ;   * Souvlaki - cubes of meat ( usually lamb ) grilled , eaten with tzatziki sauce and served uokruglom Kruscica with the addition of fresh tomato and onion or a stick ;   * Pastisio - a kind of macaroni , prepared with minced meat and bechamel sauce ;   * Melitsanes - fried zucchini and eggplant ;   * Frikase - casseroles of lamb with celery and herbs ;   * Keftedes - salty meatballs with bread crumbs .   * Calamari ( squid, squid , octopus ) -grilled , served with various sauces , excellent and filled with white salty halloumi cheese , bread crumbs, rosemary , parsley , onions and pine nuts (usually those of tomato) ;   * Loukanika - small sausages that are prepared on the grill and served with lemon ;   * Bourekakia - small meat pies - a specialty of Crete. Certainly the most popular salad is precisely the Divine blend of Greek feta cheese, tomatoes, black olives and port richly flavoured olive oil , then Lahan - salad of finely chopped cabbage tossed with oil and lemon juice. Recipes for Greek desserts were formed under the heavy influence on the East. Desserts are very sweet, soaked in honey, spices, pine nuts and anise. Special desserts as baklava simple syrup – honey soaked hot backed pastry leaves filled with nuts and spices and sometimes apple to...

Enjoying the meal together with family and friends of the Greek philosophy of life and belongs to the mandatory part of social life. The atmosphere typically Greek restaurants and taverns are very relaxed , informal and highly enjoyable. Culinary skill is highly valued , even when it comes to amateurs .   According to tradition , meals are placed in the middle of the table , and guests will select their own food preferences. Numerous events are associated with certain types of foods: koufeta ( candied almonds) are divided into baptism and marriage , and koliva ( cooked grains ) at the funeral . Every evening celebration or feast has its own specialty , and recipes throughout the year changing seasons and affordable food.  

Italian cuisine

  The wealth of food and culinary heritage rank among the most popular Italian cuisine in the world. Italy is a country of diverse geographical features, which are directly influenced by the diet. I

Italian cuisine is unique because each region has its own character.Regional uniqueness , high quality products and a sense of tradition associated with typical Italian foods and dishes. Food in Italy is a true pleasure to be celebrated daily as a treat for the senses with family or friends , at home or in a good restaurant .   Whenever possible , meals are eaten in campagnia ( in society ). Campania word comes from two Italian words con (with) and the pane (bread), including the breaking of bread with friends. Meal in a society much more than breaking bread. At the beginning of the meal antipasto (appetizer ), which usually consists of five dishes , followed by the first course ( primo ) with a selection of various dishes of pasta or rice; after this second course, which usually consists of meat or fish with a contribution of vegetables ( cotorno ), followed by the cheese ( formaggio ) , and finally dessert ( dolce ) and coffee ( espresso) .   Appetizers   Starters may consist only of prdebris , or olives with bread or fifteen attractive snacks whose ingredients vary from region to region. Processed meats such as mortadella, the world famous parma prdebris are unavoidable part of appetizers, which can be used alone or with fresh fruit. Fish and seafood are particularly popular as an appetizer in the areas along the coast. The seafood salad is most often used octopus, scallops and other shellfish species . Cheese and eggs are used in salads and dipping , but also as an ingredient spreads and pasta. Vegetables may be served raw ( in salads ) or blanched and seasoned with olive oil and fresh herbs.   Several areas may represent an independent food which can be complemented by crisp bread or polenta. Continues with fresh fruit and fragrant cheese and Italian style rounded by strong coffee, espresso.  

Coffee   In Italy, espresso drinks for breakfast and throughout the day. A good espresso should be drunk hot from the heated cups and usually with lots of sugar . Light brown foam is a sign that the coffee machine is set to the optimum temperature and pressure. Tomato Only 1750th g. When people discovered the divine taste of assistance d' oro, golden apples, were found to be an excellent fit into the culinary traditions surrounding Mount Vesuvius . Tomato is a favorite Italian vegetable, eat it almost every day, regardless of the season. It can be an integral part of sauces for pasta , one of the ingredients in salads , stuffed or baked - Italian chefs always come up with something new.  

Pizza   Pizza goes back to the period of the ancient Romans (but I think that has to do a lot with Greeks too). Hot pizza Margarita was made in honor of Queen Margaret, wife Umberto I of Savoy 1889th Filling consisted of green basil, red tomatoes and white mozzarella national colors of Italy. However, achieved the greatest popularity in the 19th century when the Italian immigrants introduced the American public. Sixties of the 20th century, pizza became popular in Europe, while in Italy is still unknown (except in the region around Naples) . It was not until the eighties of the 20th century, pizza became popular in Italy.   Pasta   Each region in Italy has its own story about the pasta.

Residents Linguini assumes that the Genoese merchants to obtain the prescription from a nomadic tribe. In Venice, they believe that Marco Polo brought noodles from China first . In Rome, claim that already the ancient emperors and senators ate pasta. Sicilians held stories that pasta made the ancient Greeks or Arabs. However, as this may be, today, pasta appears in more than 300 forms and is one of the favourite dishes. The basic division of pasta at the pasta secco (dry pasta that is prepared from durum wheat flour and water ) and pasta or pasta Fresca Fattah in casa (pasta prepared at home from wheat flour , eggs and a little water ).   Aceto balsamico;   Siroppo aceto was known since the Middle Ages. It was the syrup that is in malt vinegar and is sold in pharmacies . Original aceto balsamico tradizionale has a rich taste and harmony of sweetness, acidity , velvety softness and sharpness . Just a few drops of giving fish , salads , meat and cheese is divine taste. White or red wine vinegar is the basis of each .   Parmesan   Parmesan cheese is produced from skimmed milk (32 % fat ) . The hard , yellow , granules structure. It is very fruity , even spicy flavours. It is known in Parma is in the 13th century (although it comes from Tuscany , 11th century ). From 14 century is used as a sprinkle for pasta. It is used in preparing soup, pasta, vegetables. How marvellous taste Parmesan cheese that is grating immediately before use.   Rice   There are different theories about how rice arrived in Italy. Some believe that the rice is known by the Romans, while others believe that the Arabs brought to Sicily at the end of the first millennium. Growing rice in the Po valley dates back to the 15th c. The surrounding population was initially very sceptical of the culture is grown in water because it was feared that this will contribute to the growing spread of dangerous diseases such as plague . The most common types of cultivated rice is Oryza sativa L. japonica , whose grains remain firm during cooking . Cultivars of rice suitable for salads, cooked or baked desserts are Razza 77 or Pisces. Long to cook , and grain is almost transparent with a little starch. Cultivars such as Arborio , Carnaroli and Vialonem have long grain with a high percentage of starch and are suitable for the preparation of risotto. To prepare the soup with rice the most suitable species are Maratelli and Balilla . They are characterized by small grain full of starch, which quickly cooked while you do not fall apart.   Tiramisu   Tiramisu , which means " Carry Me " , enjoys cult status in Italy sweets . The main ingredients are lady fingers soaked in black coffee (which can add a little cognac, amaretto or rum ) and mascarpone cheese cake , which gives a creamy texture.  

Russian cuisine ;  

Russia is largest  Slavs nation and it is has rich gastronomic tradition ,culture and turbulent history.   Russian cuisine might characterize a healthy and tasty , with a very simple preparation . Its basic ingredients are grains, vegetables, fruits , spices , sea and river fish, meat and dairy products. The culinary tradition of great Russian influence has left the Orthodox Church. Since the time of religious holidays was advisable to avoid meat, dairy products and eggs , such ingrained traditions and the other days of the year.   The most popular Russian soups is the schi cabbage soup and borscht a soup made from Beetroot   Meat dishes;   Russians prefer to prepare large chunks of meat, for example, in the oven, because that, among other things, the better the meat retains juices. Most commonly eaten red meat (beef ) , lamb , mutton , pork , poultry and game. The most famous Russian meat specialty is beef Stroganoff. His fame followed by chicken fillet Pojarski , the famous steak of minced chicken fillet, bread and cream , breaded in egg and bread crumbs and fried in butter. Is unavoidable pejmen , made of minced meat.   Bread is very popular among Russians. The specialty of the recent origin of the rye bread. If you find yourself in Russia, will not go wrong you ask borodinski , rizhski , kishinevski , darnitski , arnautski , aquiline or Slavic bread, which , except in different types of flour and add-ons , such as seeds , coriander, molasses , vanilla ... The most famous Russian pastries are pirozi and Piroska , and are made of sour dough with various fillings.   Rye ,barley , millet , oats wheat ,buckwheat are weary popular as a side dish .   Fish specialties   The Russians eat lots of fresh water and marine fish : perch, cod, salmon , herring , saltshaker , sardines and sturgeon . Caviar is popular Russian dish . Along with truffles , oysters, goose pate and unavoidable champagne , caviar is a privilege of the highest strata, of course, due to astronomical prices . But fans say that prices are proportional to the enjoyment.   The best caviar is roe of sturgeon fish. Salmon caviar are less valued kinds of caviar. Before serving caviar must cool down on a saucer pass to the top of the spoon full of roe and accompanied by toast, butter, a quarter of a lemon and a glass of vodka. First, drink vodka , spreads toasted bread with butter and caviar , and sprayed with lemon juice , and enjoy all the senses.   Vegetables   Due to the cold climate in Russia prevails root vegetables and cabbage. Root vegetables are eaten fresh or it is winter food preparation and are eaten with cabbage and carrots , turnip , radish , cucumbers , mushrooms and potatoes. Consumption of other vegetables is mostly seasonal .   Dairy products   The best known and most famous Russian dairy product is kefir, a drink made from soured cow's milk , with the help of an important role kefir fungi. Kefir is the most consumed in the Caucasus, where people are very long-lived , and the secret of longevity attributed to just the drink. It is well known great Russian sour milk.   Spices   Typical spices used in Russian cuisine are dill, parsley, celery, pepper, cinnamon, cardamom and cloves .   Drink   Tea is popular drink in Russians. Russian tea party is a social event with tea and cookies is a tradition which began back in 1638th year. National symbol , the Russian samovar ( tea pot ), unfortunately is now only a nostalgic memory of Russian history. Yeast is the vodka and tea Russian national drink, fermented, it is simply a low alcohol content. It is made of bread, apples, pears ... Among Westerners the most popular Russian vodka (meaning "little water " ) and it is almost all-knowing . Less well known is that in Russia since vodka prepare delicious liqueurs : nalivka , liquor supplemented with berries and nastojka , liquor with the addition of aromatic herbs. Among the highlights are sparkling wines Krimskoje .   Dessert   Among Russian sweets now dominate the sweet breads, cakes, pies and pancakes blini, but we still count the beautiful old Russian sweets. Kisel is the oldest Russian dessert, it is a kind of jelly and dried berries, molasses and milk. Among the typical speciality is Russian blini , similar to crêpe (that my have different shape and texture) from leavened dough with wheat and buckwheat flour and many different stuffing including caviar. Paska is a traditional Easter dessert made of fresh cheese , cream , eggs , butter , lemon and orange with crushed almonds ..

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